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Scriptural References: Leviticus 16th Chapter, Leviticus 23:26-32, Numbers 29:7-11.
This Appointed Time is celebrated in the Fall and in English it is called “The Day of Atonement”. Yom Kippur or Yom HaKippurim is the proper Hebrew name and it means, “Day of Covering” or “Day of the Covering”. It is celebrated on the 10th day of the 7th Hebrew month. This correlates with our months of September/October.
Yom Kippur is also known as, Yom HaPeduth (The Day of Redemption), Yom HaDin (The Day of Judgment), Sabbath of Sabbaths, Day of Yahweh (Day of the Lord). It was also the day referred to in Hebrew as, “Panayim-El-Panayim” seeing Yahweh face to face.
Yom Kippur is the most solemn of all the appointed times of Yahweh. No work is to be done on this day, and traditionally a complete fast is observed. It is a most solemn High Holy Day, a most holy Sabbath. It was the day of cleansing for the nation, sanctuary and the priests. On this day, and only this day, the High Priest would enter into the Holy of Holies and make atonement for the sins of himself and the people. He would carry behind the 2nd veil the blood of Yahweh's goat, the sin offering. Here he sprinkled the blood on the Mercy Seat, which in Hebrew is called the kapporet. Martin Luther, in his translations of the Bible, is the one who called the Kapporet the “mercy seat”. (1) Kapporet literally means “cover”. It was the lid on the ark.
The blood on the kapporet brought about the cleansing of their sin. On Yom Kippur Yahweh would either grant or deny the covering of their sins for the coming year. It was only on this day that Yahweh would appear in the cloud upon the kapporet. (Lev. 16:2)
Sins were never forgiven on Yom Kippur, they were only “covered” for one year, then the process was repeated again, because there was a remembrance of their sins on a yearly basis. However, when Yeshua made the ultimate sacrifice, He entered into the Holy of of Holies only once as our High Priest and the sacrifice, and His blood “forgave” our sins. I hope you see the difference here. The book of Hebrews does a very good job of explaining this difference, as well as the role of Yeshua as High Priest, Mediator, etc.
The Year of Jubilee always begins on a Yom Kippur. The counting of the Shemita years begins at this time of the year also.
Jewish tradition states that it was on Yom Kippur that Moses received the 2nd set of tablets. He then came down the mountain on Yom Kippur with his face shining from being in the presence of Yahweh. (2) This is why the Children of Israel could understand the process of “covering” and someone acting as mediator on their behalf.
In the future fulfillment of this feast by Yeshua we know that it is on Yom Kippur that Yeshua will return, at the sounding of the “great trumpet” to judge the world and separate the sheep from the goats, the wheat from the tares. The “great trumpet” always sounds on Yom Kippur and its sounding will usher in the return of Yeshua HaMashiach. While Yom Teruah represents the bride “going out to meet” the bridegroom, Yom Kippur represents the wedding itself, and Sukkot represents the Wedding Feast or Marriage Supper of the Lamb, and Shemini Atzeret (the Eighth Day) represents the Day of New Beginnings, the New Heaven and the New Earth.
In the Brit HaDasha (the New Testament) we read about the Transfiguration of Yeshua on the Mount of Transfiguration. (Matthew 17:1-13, Mark 9:2-10, Luke 9:28-36 and II Peter 1:16-21). This event is extremely important because here the disciples saw a "future vision" of the coming of Yeshua in power and majesty. They claimed that they were already "eyewitnesses" of His second coming. It is believed by some, including myself, that THIS event happened on the Day of Yom Kippur. This is because He will physically return in His excellency on this day in the future.
As you can surely see, this Great and Awesome Appointed time of Yahweh is full of so much prophecy that one teaching can do nothing to teach its relevance. This teaching is but a preview.
Rashi, Exodus 32:1 and 33:11