The 5 Offerings - Torah Portion Vayikra
Leviticus 1:1 – 5:26(6:7)
Vayikra means “and He called” in Hebrew. Vayikra is the Hebrew name of the book that we call Leviticus.
In these scripture readings we read about the 5 types of offerings or sacrifices required by Adonai of His children.
The word offering (H7133) is qorban and means something which is brought near (the altar). It comes from the Hebrew word "qarab", meaning to approach. It is a sacrificial present, offering, oblation, gift, contribution or sacrifice offered in worship of or for a particular purpose (Websters).
The word sacrifice in Hebrew is "zebach" from "zabach"meaning to slaughter an animal.
(Strong's Concordance H2077)
These 5 offerings are as follows:
The Burnt Offering – Olah
Olah – (H5930) was the whole burnt offering. The whole sacrifice was given to the LORD, except for the skins which were given to the priest (Leviticus 7:8). This sacrifice was offered every morning and evening and on the Sabbath (Num. 28:9-10.), at the beginning of each new month (Num. 28:11, 29:6), at the celebration of Passover on the 14th day of the 1st month (Num. 28:16), along with the new grain offering at Feast of Weeks (Num. 28:27), and at the Appointed Time of Trumpets (Num. 29:1ff.). A whole burnt offering was often offered in conjunction with another sacrifice or offering. Among these were the guilt or trespass offering (Lev. 5:7, 10, 17-18), the sin offering (cf. Lev. 5:7; 6:25; 9:2-3, 7; 12:6, 8), freewill or peace offering (Lev. 22:18), the sheaf offering (Lev. 23:12), and the new grain offering (Lev. 23:15-22).
According to scripture (Lev. 1:3-4) the whole burnt offering was to make atonement for sin. The person bringing the whole burnt offering had to lay his hands upon the head of the animal signifying the transferring of sins and then he had to slit the throat of the animal. The priest took it from there.
There were a number of occasions when a sacrifice was required for cleansing of which the burnt offering was one of the sacrifices offered. The whole burnt offering was required in the cleansing of a woman’s uncleanness as a result of child-bearing (sin and burnt offering required, Lev. 12:6-8), of a leper (Lev. 14:19-20), of a man with a discharge (with a sin offering, Lev. 15:14-15), of a woman with an abnormal discharge (with a sin offering, Lev. 15:30), and of a Nazarite who was unintentionally defiled by contact with a dead body (Num. 6:11, 14). When the congregation unwittingly failed to observe one of God’s commands, and was thereby defiled, a burnt offering was required for the purification of the congregation (Num. 15:22-26). A burnt offering was required for the purification and consecration of Aaron (Lev. 16:3, 5, 24), as well as the Levites (Num. 8:12).
It could be a bull, sheep, goat or bird (only males). In addition, first born animals (clean animals) were burnt offerings. This sacrifice was the most common of all of the sacrifices. This would be the type of sacrifice that Abraham was called to make with Isacc.
Meat (meal) or Grain Offering – Minchah
The minchah offering always had a portion burned on the alter and the rest was given to the priest. Oil was always poured upon it, with frankincense and salt (Lev. 2:13). The grain offering would also cover the firstfruits offering. Any grain offering also required a burnt offering: see Numbers 28:1-28 and chapter 29; Exodus 40:29, Exodus 29:41, Judges 13:19, and 2 Kings 16:15.
This offering was made twice a day and always with the burnt offering, Lev. 6:20, Lev. 9:17, Lev. 14:20. The grain offering itself had nothing to do with atonement.
This offering (Strong’s - H4503) is first mentioned in Genesis 4 with Cain and Abel. Cain and Abel understood whole burnt offerings, firstborn and fat ordinance. The grain offering was always done with the burnt offering, Scripture makes no mention of Cain bringing a burnt offering with his grain offering. Cain knew the proper protocol but wanted to do things his own way, thereby having his offering rejected by the LORD. He refused to bring the blood offering with his fruit offering of the ground. Abel obeyed and his sacrifice was accepted.
This offering included the drink offering.
Peace or Fellowship Offering - Shelem
(Strong's H8002) Lev. 3: 1-17 and 7:11-38. This offering is first mentioned in Exodus 20:24 at the foot of Mt. Sinai.
The purpose was to restore fellowship and peace with God. Hebrew word is sheh-lem coming from the same word as Shalom (peace). Yeshua is our King of Peace or Sar Shalom, Prince of Peace.
The animal could be a bull or cow, male or female sheep or goat. No exception could be made for the poor, as with some offerings. It was offered for the sacrifice of praise, thanks, adoration, and for the completion of a vow.
Two types: thanksgiving and praise (Lev. 7:12, Heb. 13:15-16) The priest got a portion of this sacrifice but it had to be eaten the same day.
As a vow or for voluntary offering of service (Lev. 7:16). If for thanksgiving it was offered with unleavened cakes mixed with oil as a heave offering then the priest gets to eat these cakes as food (this was with grain offering). The priest offering the sacrifice and his family gets a portion of the meat (breast and thigh) for food, and the person offering and his family gets the rest of the meat for food.
This sacrifice was considered “a community meal” with God, priest, and worshiper eating together of the sacrifice.
This offering had nothing to do with sin. It was a voluntary offering. It was offered a lot on feast days, joyous occasions, and beginning of months.
This offering will be offered during the kingdom of Yeshua on earth. For more on this please see the Books of Ezekiel and Zachariah.
Sin Offering (H2403) - khat-taw-aw
First mentioned in Exodus 29:14. It was required because of offense. The offense was for unintentional sins, never willful sins.
A young bull was required or a female lamb. Except for the portion which was to be burned on the altar and what was to be burned outside the camp, the majority of the animal was to be eaten by the priest.
The Guilt or Trespass Offering – aw-sham
This offering was also for unintentional sins, never willful sins.
It seems that the difference between the sin offering and the trespass offering was that the sin offering was for sins against God while the trespass offering was for sins against man or holy things. It had to do with restitution. This offering was to be brought if a person, “overheard swearing and kept silent," if he "touched any unclean thing," if he "sinned ignorantly in the things of the Lord," if he "lied to his neighbor," if he "found and kept lost property and lied about it," etc.
There were three animals that would suffice for this offering, according to a person's ability, a "female lamb or kid;" "two turtle doves, or young pigeons," one of which was to be offered for a sin offering, the other for a burnt offering; or the "tenth part of an ephah of fine flour" for a sin offering, that should contain no oil or frankincense.
If his trespass was against "holy things," or against the "property of his neighbor," he was to make "restitution" and add to it one-fifth of the value in silver money.
The trespass offering was to infer that if a person had done anything that had caused injury to anyone else then they were to make reparation, as much as possible, and make restitution with that person.